– four suicide bombers killed 52 people, injured over 770

Three struck underground trains (Russell Square, Aldgate, Edgware Road)

One struck bus (Tavistock Place)

Suicide bombers:

Hasib Hussain, Mohammad Sidique Khan, Germaine Lindsay, Shehzad Tanweer

Investigation

Materials – readily available

Supposed motivation – perceived injustices by West against Muslims

Al-Qaeda involvement unclear

Little potential for violent extremism in suspects – no one who knew the suspects had any clue that these events were coming, except perhaps in hindsight

Surrounding events

Reconnaissance mission – December 16th, 2004 (cell cite analysis revealed this in October of 2006)

Practice run – 9 days prior, revealed by CCTV footage

July 21st, 2005 attempted attacks – exactly two weeks later, 3 underground trains and 1 bus targeted again, not suicide bombers this time, connection to 7/7 unclear

More on motivation – historical insight

Failure of multiculturalism in Britain – perceived injustice by West

Suspects brought up British (not socially isolated), parents protected in Britain

Visits to Pakistan – not uncommon for young Muslim men, even extended visits. Still, the visits that the suicide bombers made were examined.

Hindsight recollections

Kahn’s last Will and Testament – avenging Muslim brothers for atrocities that he thought Western democracy cause

Immediate British reactions

British notably calm

Criticism of security measures – London Assembly Report (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/london/5048806.stm)

Criticism of leaders and government (much more so than U.S. after 9/11)

Media Coverage:

– Uninterrupted news coverage on BBC One and ITV1 until 7 pm

– Many U.S. sources called it the next 9/11, most British press compared it to the Madrid bombings

– The BBC was different in its use of “rolling” news. Even if they had updates on the situation, they did not broadcast information, including growing evidence that the explosions were caused by bombs, until it had been officially confirmed

– Radio had updates in between shows

– BNP leaflet- image of bus alongside slogan “Maybe now it’s time to start listening to the BNP

– Al Jazeera video of Tanweer released a year before it made appearance on BBC

-Videos could be “stitched together for propaganda effect”

– “Democratising” of the media

-User generated content (UGC), or “citizens” journalism

-22,000 e-mails and texts about the events

-300 photos and several video sequences

-Led the BBC 6 O’Clock news bulletin, the first time citizens’ material was

used over the public.

Latest Developments

-April 28, 2009-3 arrested (Waheed Ali, Sadeer Saleem, and Mohammed Shakil) in May 2007 were acquitted of all major terrorism charges

-Families of victims and survivors campaigning for independent inquiry into bombings

Sources:

7 July Bombings: The Investigation.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/london_blasts/investigation/html/introduction.stm

21 July Attacks: Overview.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/london_blasts/what_happened/html/21_07_05.stm

London bombers staged ‘dummy run’.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/4263176.stm

Modood, Tariq. (2005). Remaking multiculturalism after 7/7.

http://www.surrey-research-park.co.uk/Arts/CRONEM/Tariq-Modood-article.pdf

Report of the Official Account of the Bombings in London on 7th July 2005.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/11_05_06_narrative.pdf

Timeline: The 7/7 London Bombings.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/apr/28/july-7-bombing-london

Douglas, Torin. “How 7/7 ‘democratised’ the media.”

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/5142702.stm

Luft, Oliver. “BBC ‘mimicked’ Sky News policy after 7/7 bombings.”

http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2009/feb/10/sky-bbc-news-7-july-bombings

MacLeod, Donald. “London explosions ‘mirror Madrid bombings.’”

http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2005/jul/07/highereducation.uk1

North, Rachel. “Give us a 7/7 inquiry.”

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/libertycentral/2009/apr/29/july-7-2005-inquiry

Williams, Rachel. “Trio not guilty of helping 7/7 London bombers.” http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/apr/28/july-7-london-bomb-trial